Conditions associated with zinc deficiency include:
Loss of appetite
Impaired immune function
Hypopigmentation of hair
Nail changes such as white spots
Delayed sexual maturation
Hypogonadism in males
Fertility issues for men and women
Suboptimal pregnancy outcomes
Impaired glycaemic control
Delayed healing of wounds
Loss of smell
Age-related macular degeneration
Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamins A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium and Zinc. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2001. Available from:
World Health Organization. Trace elements in human nutrition and health. 1996. Available from: http://www.who.int/nutrition/publications/micronutrients/9241561734/en/
Wada O. What are Trace Elements. JMAJ. 2004; 47(8): 351-358.
Aliasgharpour M, Rahnamaye FM. Elements in human nutrition: A review. 2013; 2(3): 115-128.
Braun L, Cohen M. Herbs and Natural Supplements: An evidence based guide. 4th Edition, Vol 2. Australia. Elsevier, 2015.